What Is Vegan Leather Made Out Of?

There’s no denying that leather occupies an exceptional place in fashion. So a nice-looking pair of vegan leather pants or a functional bag is a must for anyone looking to make their closet cruelty-free and more sustainable. This way, you can be confident in what you decide to wear and guilt-free about your purchase.

Vegan Leather Fabric

Vegan leather fabrics are essentially imitation leather. The benefit of choosing vegan leather is that its less costly to manufacture, which means its retail value is usually lower. On top of that, faux leathers do not contain animal products or products tested on animals. The ethical concerns surrounding fast fashion have caused brands like Burberry, Gucci, Versace and Prada to ban fur in recent years.

The Truth About Vegan Leather

Vegan leather should not necessarily be thought of as an eco-friendly alternative to real leather. Most vegan and faux leathers are made of synthetic polymers, which are derived from nonrenewable petrochemicals, i.e. crude oil and natural gases. At each phase of plastic’s lifecycle, from fossil fuel extraction and refining, to manufacturing and use, and even end-of-life (incineration, recycling) greenhouse gases are generated because of these petrochemical ingredients. According to a study titled “Microfiber Release from Different Fabrics During Washing“, leathers made of synthetic plastics shed pollutants during wash and dry cycles. When plastic fabrics are exposed to physical stress, they release microfibers and greenhouse gases into the air and water.

Plant-Based Leather

The good news is that not all vegan leathers are made equal. Plant-based leathers are more environmentally friendly than conventional plastic leathers, and they’re vegan! Plant-based leather is made from repurposed plant material and agriculture wastes. If you’re interested in sustainable vegan leather, then make sure the fabric that you buy is manufactured from organic, renewable sources rather than synthetic plastics.

What Is Vegan Leather Made From?

Vegan leather is often made from polyurethane or polyvinyl chloride. Polyurethane, sometimes abbreviated as PU, is a type of organic polymer composed of urethane (rubber) links. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), another popular synthetic plastic polymer, is made of polymerized vinyl chloride. Both PVC and PU leather are made to mimic the look and feel of real animal skin, but their properties are quite different. Vegan leather is thinner and more lightweight than conventional leather and vegan leather will not peel or crack over time, as it does not require moisture like animal skins do.

Vegan Leather for Sale

If you’re interested in vegan leather products, consider shopping at Nordstrom, Target, Free People or Urban Outfitters. When buying your faux leather, be sure to read the product label to find out what materials its made from. Finding a vegan product is not the same as finding a plant-based one. Vegan fabrics will not necessarily contain any animal-derived materials, but may contain synthetic plastics, which can contribute to the build-up of pollutants in air and water ways. For more sustainable fashion, be sure that your purchases are made from renewable sources such as food waste, various crops, vegetable extracts and or wood.

Vegandale In Chicago, IL

festival crowd with hands in the air
festival crowd

Vegandale is a food festival in Chicago, Illinois. Hundreds of people gather downtown every summer to celebrate animal welfare and sustainability. Approved Vegandale vendors are allowed to sale cruelty-free products, such as soaps, fashion, foods and drinks. The Chicago event is essentially an outdoor party that brings people from across the country together.

Vegandale’s cultural attractions are just as important as its food, it includes music, contests, performing artists, etc. For this reason, it attracts vegans as well as meat-eaters, and everyone in between. So while sampling great tasting plant-based foods, visitors can also be entertained.

Vegandale takes place at Grant Park, 100 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL. The dates for Vegandale are Saturday, June 11th, 2022 – 11 am-7 pm.

Vegandale Chicago

Vegans and vegetarians are welcome to apply as vendors at Vegandale in Chicago. Visit their website to contact a representative for merchant opportunities. The event is 100% vegan, so all products must be free of animal derivatives. Vegandale emphasizes the moral imperative for the vegan lifestyle. Chicagoans are encouraged to step out of their comfort zone and try products that avoid animal exploitation. 

 Vegandale Chicago Tickets

Chicago Vegandale tickets are available online here. “Early Bird” tickets are only $10.00. Vegandale also has “Chicago Pack of 4” tickets for sale for $30.00. The tickets permit access to the event from 11:00 am – 7:00 pm. Vegandale allows children ages 12 and under to be admitted for free, as long as an adult ticket holder accompanies them. 

Vegan Festival 

People attend vegan festivals to share creative vegan and vegetarian dishes every year. The dishes on offer are ideal for clean eaters or anyone who’s dieting. These foods are generally light in calories and shouldn’t make you drowsy as you move through your day in Chicago. If you have not already been to a vegan festival, consider adding Vegandale to your list of stops.

Chicago Food Festival

Food festivals in Chicago can usually be a pain for parking; luckily, Vegandale suggests that its participants use Millennium Park Garage and Millennium Lakeside Garage. If driving is not an option, public transportation (train or bus) will certainly be your next best bet. If all else fails, consider renting a Divvy bike from one of the city’s 608 stations.

Goodfood Chicago

Goodfood is a well-known international food vendor. They will likely make another appearance at Vegandale 2022. Other vendors at the event include:

  • Vegan Street Food Chicago
  • The Bakehouse
  • Cinnaholic
  • Native Foods
  • Sweet Vegan Bites
  • Happy Bottom
  • Unearth Goodness
  • Mermaid’s Munchies
  • Danie’s Natural Juice Blends
  • Gr8 Bakes, Paulie Gee’s
  • Kale My Name
  • Justveggies
  • Vegan Bakers Man

Chicago Vegan Fest

If you’re a Chicago resident or just visiting, check to see if there are any vegan festivals that you might be interested in nearby. These fests make for a great time in the windy city during the summer. Whether you are going on a romantic date, vacationing with friends, or backpacking solo, events like Vegandale are well worth the price of admission.  

Vegan Leather

leather jackets hanging on coat rack

Nowadays, vegan leather is popular among young shoppers. The increase in demand for faux leather is partly due to eco-friendly consumers. Vegan leather is made with synthetics like plastic materials that imitate animal skin. The most common synthetic leather is polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyurethane (PU). Vegan leather is better for the environment, but it’s also often cheaper than real animal skin!

What is Vegan Leather?

Vegan leather is made from chemicals that combine plastic coating with fabric backing. Sometimes vegan leather can be made in ways that can harm the environment; for example, PVC releases dioxins. This chemical can be dangerous in small spaces and if burnt. The less harmful plastic used is PU which reduces some of these risks.

Vegan vs. Real Leather

There are several differences between vegan and real leather. One factor that many wonder about is the quality and durability. While vegan leather is more environment-friendly, the material is thinner and can become less durable over time, while genuine leather is sturdy and can last over ten years with maintenance. When choosing the right leather for you, consider the factors listed below. 

What Is Bonded Leather?

Bonded leather is a mix of real and faux leather. This material is recycled old leather and a specific fiber with a polyurethane binder. The threads are rolled together with adhesives and bonded onto a paper backing to create bonded leather. Some leather-making companies also add coatings of polyurethane to provide a skin-like texture. If you’re wondering if your product is made with bonded leather, check for the following names:

  • LeatherSoft
  • Faux Leather
  • Composite
  • Vinyl
  • Reconstituted

Pros & Cons of PU Leather

There are a few pros and cons when it comes to PU leather. When considering a PU leather product, it’s essential to know the possible maintenance. Benefits of PU Leather are its lower price and it’s also easier to clean. The cons of PU leather are that it won’t last as long as real animal skin. PU leather does not bend well and will crack over time. Let’s also keep in mind that PU leather is often more environment-friendly, meaning that fewer greenhouse gas emissions are involved in the production and life-cycle of the product.  

Vegan Leather Fabric for Sale

Popular places to purchase vegan leather include Etsy, Fabric.com, and more websites. Vegan leather is relatively cheap to acquire; Walmart even sells faux leather textiles for less than $5. Shop faux leather fabric by the yard at your trusted fabric provider. Many people report that it’s easier to work with and make vegan leather leather pants, jackets, and other fabric items. 

Is Seitan Healthy For Weight Loss?

Plant-based diets are more than just a strategy for promoting sustainable agriculture, they can also improve weight loss efforts and reduce heart disease risks. Plant proteins like seitan are generally lower in fats and carbohydrates compared to animal proteins, so seitan is an ideal food while dieting for weight loss. Carbohydrates are macronutrients taken from the foods that we consume. Our bodies then convert carbohydrates into glucose which is used as energy.

woman holding tape measurer around waist

A 2014 randomized controlled trial titled “Effect of a 6-Month Vegan Low-Carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) Diet On Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Weight In Hyperlipidaemic Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial” compared the effects of low-carbohydrate vegan diets (containing protein and fat from plant-based sources) to high-carbohydrate ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (containing some animal sources of protein and fat). The study concludes that low-carbohydrate vegan diets that get protein and fat from gluten and other plant foods had weight loss advantages over a high-carbohydrate ovo-lacto vegetarian diets. Furthermore, low-carb vegan diets had greater lipid lowering benefits than high-carb diets did, making low-carb vegan diets the superior alternative for limiting heart disease risks.

“Effect of a 6-Month Vegan Low-Carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) Diet On Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Weight In Hyperlipidaemic Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial” Review

The 23 participants who completed the study were overweight hyperlipidemic men and women. They were instructed to eat one of two of these meal plans over the course of six months after finishing one-month-all foods included-variations of the diets. The macronutrient intake for the low-carbohydrate meal plan had 26% of energy came from carbohydrates, 31% from protein and 43% from fat. For the high-carbohydrate meal plan, 58% of energy came from carbohydrates, 16% from protein and 25% from fat. The results of the study: weight loss for the low-carbohydrate group increased to -15.2 pounds compared to the -12.7 pounds weight loss increase for the high-carbohydrate participants. In addition, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (also known as bad cholesterol) and triglyceride reductions were more pronounced in the low-carbohydrate group.

Why Is Seitan Healthy? | Benefits of Vital Wheat Gluten

Seitan is a protein source that has been growing in popularity in recent years. Seitan, like tempeh and soy, is considered a protein alternative for individuals who are looking to limit their consumption of animal meats. Others, like vegans and vegetarians abstain from eating animal flesh altogether, and therefore require plant-based foods that have dense sources of protein. Plant-based sources of protein include mushrooms, soy, nutritional yeast, nuts, edamame, lentils, quinoa, certain seeds – and of course seitan.

wheat crops field
wheat crops field

Seitan Vs Chicken, Beef, Poultry Meats

The primary benefit of most plant proteins, including seitan, is that they have not been strongly correlated with increased cancer risks, as is the case for with red and processed meats. According to American Heart Association, animal proteins like beef, lamb, pork, beef-fat and poultry contain saturated fats which can raise LDL cholesterol levels in blood. The American Cancer society reports that tender cuts of meat and ground meat, fish, shellfish and eggs are low in fiber – (dietary fiber refers to a combination of bioactive components that may lower risk of death from cardiovascular, infectious, and respiratory diseases). Across the world and throughout human history, people have been using animal meats as a source for protein. Modern evidence is emerging which suggests that animal meats are unsafe for routine consumption, and should be limited to avoid increased risks for cancer and other types diseases. Seitan wins out over animal sources because seitan packs a high dose of protein but does not come with some of the negative trade-offs associated with animal foods.

Seitan Is A Nutritious Vegan and Vegetarian Protein Alternative

Seitan is made from water and gluten, so it is naturally a dense source of protein. Gluten is a group of seed storage proteins found in wheat. In plants, storage proteins are used by vegetation development and are beneficial for the survival. In humans, storage proteins provide amino acids, the complex molecular structures which combine to make protein. Seitan may contain as much as three times the protein of beef or lamb. Seitan is also low in carbohydrates and fat, which means that it would be conducive to diet regimes aimed at losing or managing body fat while still providing the means to build muscle. On top of that, seitan is a source of many other nutrients, such as selenium, iron, phosphorus, calcium, copper, potassium, magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. Seitan is plant-based, cholesterol free, high in protein and beneficial for individuals looking to improve health and limit disease risks.

Homemade Seitan Recipe: BBQ Seitan “Ribs” (Vegan)

Barbeque (BBQ) seitan ribs may be one of the best ways to enjoy seitan. Seitan has a stringy, chewy texture that is often compared to that of meat. Seitan is thus the ideal substitute for meat in a variety of dishes. The benefit is that seitan can be eaten guilt free – as it is made exclusively from pure wheat gluten and therefore is not as resource intensive as animal derived foods. If you want to make some seitan barbeque ribs, feel free to try out our version of it below, starting with the ingredients.

barbeque (BBQ) seitan strips
saucy BBQ seitan strips

The Ingredients:

1 cup vital wheat gluten

1 cup nutritional yeast

1/2 teaspoon ground ginger

2 teaspoon garlic powder

½ cup soy sauce 

1 cup of herbal broth (herbs of your choosing; we used 1 part pesto, 1 parts basil, add water)

1 tablespoon tomato paste

2 cloves of minced garlic

2 teaspoon salt-free seasoning

barbeque sauce of your choosing (we used Sweet Baby Ray’s Barbeque Sauce)

Instructions: How To Make Seitan (Knead Your Gluten)

First, we need to make our seitan strips! You’ll need to combine the vital wheat gluten flour, nutritional yeast, ground ginger, and garlic powder, then add them to a bowl of your choosing. Then start adding water to the bowl of ingredients and stir the combination. Very quickly, you’ll notice that the ingredients are taking on a thick, doughy form. At this point you want to put your mixing tool a way and use your hands to continue to mix the doughy clump. If necessary, add a little water at a time until your doughy form has a bread-like consistency. In a separate bowl, you’ll want to mix your soy sauce and home made herbal broth.

Knead your seitan dough repeatedly for about 10 minutes. Although this will seam like forever, its important to iron out any inconsistencies in the dough. Take a 5 minute break and then knead your gluten seitan dough for 10 more minutes (last time, we promise). and then knead a few more times. Once you’re happy with the dough’s texture and consistency, you’ll separate the dough into 1 inch thick “cutlets”. Each morsel will expand once its cooked, so make sure to stretch them out at this point. To do this, you will gently tug at each cutlet from its ends, stretching it thin. You will want to stretch your seitan thin so that once it expands, it will not be too thick to chew. At this point, you can put your herbal broth and soy sauce mixture to a small pan, and let the mixture simmer over a low flame.

Make sure that your herbal broth is not preheated. You want the picture to be at least room temperature so that your gluten cutlets stay intact and firm. Place your cutlets into the herbal broth, partially cover the top of the pot, and cook on high heat. At this point, you can simply let your cutlets cook, flipping them at least once every 8 minutes or so. Your cutlets will begin to absorb the broth and harden. Now that you can add the tomato sauce to ensure that your cutlets take in more flavor. Once your seitan cutlets are finished cooking, you’ll notice that the center of the strips are firm, as are the ends. Your cutlets are now ready to be introduced to a barbeque sauce of your choosing, and perhaps served as “rib” sandwiches or with grilled vegetables!

Is Seitan (Vital Wheat Gluten) Healthy? | Benefits of Seitan

Seitan is a vegan type of meat alternative that has a reputation for being a dense source of protein and other nutrients – such as omega-6 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus and selenium. Since seitan is made from pure wheat derived gluten, it is packed full of protein. Seitan contains no dairy, which means it is compatible with a low-cholesterol diet plan. Seitan also contains no soy, which means that it is ideal for vegans and vegetarians that have soy sensitivities.

Tell Us What You Think

This recipe was exciting to try out and took 3 tries to perfect! Of course, there is more than one way to do it and we encourage you to add your own original flavors to the meal. If you tried barbeque (BBQ) seitan “ribs” out our way, leave us a comment and tell us what your thought. If you happened to make your own version of this recipe, we would love to give your recipe a try, so please share!

Is Seitan Healthy?

Seitan, pronounced say-tan, is a stringy type of gluten that is made of wheat. Seitan is popular among vegans and vegetarians because of its remarkably high protein content. Seitan is almost completely made of vital wheat gluten. On top of that, seitan is easy to prepare and can be made from simple ingredients. Although its convenient to make seitan at home, its not uncommon for people to buy it pre-made from stores and restaurants. However, store bought seitan can come with extra sodium, flavoring, preservatives or oils. The best way to avoid subtracting from the nutritional quality of your seitan is to make it yourself. Making your seitan yourself not only safeguards you against undesirable additives, but it also allows you to better customize your meal to your liking.

bowtie pasta with seitan and mushrooms protein
bowtie pasta with seitan and mushrooms

Seitan Protein Content

Seitan is low in calories, low in carbohydrates, low in fat, contains zero cholesterol and is high in protein – as it is derived from pure wheat gluten. Gluten is a class of proteins which can also be found in barely, rye, spelt, durum, emmer, semolina, farina, farro, graham, khorasan wheat, einkorn, and triticale. According to Kerith Duncanson, senior research fellow, School of Medicine and Public Health at the University of Newcastle, seitan has about three times as much protein as beef or lamb. Hunter also states that a small serving of seitan (a portion no bigger than the size of one’s palm) contains 75 grams of protein. Among other nutrients, vital wheat gluten contains omega-6 fatty acids, iron, phosphorus and selenium. Omega-6 fatty acids has properties which have proven useful in the management of inflammatory skin diseases, like dermatitis, and acne. Dietary iron aids in oxidation-reduction reactions and oxygen transportation. Another essential mineral, phosphorus, plays a critical role in gene transcription, intracellular energy storage and energy transfer. Foods containing selenium can help protect our bodies against oxidative stress and protection against infection.

Check out more of seitan’s benefits here!

Here’s Why Epicurious Left Beef Recipes Behind

slab of raw beef
slab of raw beef

This year, the food company Epicurious decided that it would not add anymore beef recipes to its “recipe’s list”. The company stated that it will no longer feature recipes that include beef on its homepage or social media feed. Epicurious made it obvious that they were leaving beef behind for climate change, and posted that “… think of this decision as not anti-beef but rather pro-planet”. In this decision, Epicurious supports sustainable agriculture in more ways that one.

Why Has Epicurious Banned Beef Recipes?

To promote sustainable agriculture, Epicurious will not longer add beef recipes to its site. The consequences of unsustainable farming practices are most apparent in water and land use. Livestock animals eat massive amounts of vegetation so that they can meet their caloric requirements. Cows are large animals and are costly to raise to maturity. Just one dairy cow may consume tens of thousands more calories than any human does, and their calories come strictly for plants. Growing enough food for livestock limits the amount of land and water that could be used for human consumable crops. Livestock animals also need space to roam, play and interact.

Why Are Cows Bad for the Environment?

We must be tactful in how we use land, as it is not an unlimited asset. The same is true of our air. Methane is an element of natural gas found in underground reserves, produced in land-fills and released during enteric fermentation in ruminants, like cows. As mentioned in Epicurious’ blog post, “Every Question You Have About Cattle, Climate, and Why Epicurious Is Done With Beef”, the crops fed to livestock is made using pesticides and fertilizer that are derived from fossil fuels.

When that feed is metabolized in cows, it is converted into manure that is then spread over fields or runs off into water ways. In certain water systems, organic waste introduces excess nutrients, such as phosphorus and nitrogen, and facilitates algae overgrowth. Algae blooms deplete the oxygen and sunlight from surface water ecosystems, causing illness and sometimes death in other species within the environment. On land, manure releases nitrous oxide and methane into airways and drives rising temperatures. The Environmental Protection Agency reports that in 2019, 10 percent of America’s greenhouse gas emissions came from its agriculture sector.

Epicurious has expressed that not eating beef is a means to reduce one’s carbon footprint. Here at ecoTreatise, we believe pork, chicken, seafood and dairy may also be left behind if chefs are looking to further reduce their overall environmental impacts. Sustainable lifestyles require that we be mindful of the water, land and energy intensity of the products we consume.

How Food Affects Mood

The lifestyles and habits that we maintain have a direct affect on how we feel. Taking walks, doing yoga, exercising, drinking water, eating a nutritionally dense meal and getting enough rest are all examples of behaviors that are thought to improve health under normal circumstances. However, some activities can have benefits that extend to our emotional wellbeing as well. Eating nutritionally-dense meals is among the most important of these activities because the foods we eat have a considerable potential for altering the chemistry of our guts.

What Is Your Gut Microbiome?

Everything you eat changes your gut microbiome-the microscopic organisms in your digestive tract. The microorganisms in your gastrointestinal tract aids in immune response, metabolism and plays a role in overall mood regulation. We acquire most of our gut bacteria shortly after birth, perhaps as early as in the womb. As we age, our microbiome gets changed by our diet, the dust we come into contact with, our pets, medication and other lifestyle and factors.

spinach leaves up close
spinach leaves

A 2018 study conducted by researchers Camille Lassale, G David Batty, Amaria Baghdadli, Felice Jacka, Almudena Sánchez-Villegas, Mika Kivimäki, Tasnime Akbaraly concludes that 12 nutrients (Folate, iron, long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA), magnesium, potassium, selenium, thiamine, vitamin A, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, and zinc) relate to the prevention of and recover from depression. This study lists “leafy greens, lettuces, peppers, and cruciferous vegetables” as foods with the highest antidepressant affect scores.

These foods are low in excessive calories and are sources of other vitamins and minerals. Plant foods, like leafy greens and cruciferous vegetables, have anti-inflammatory properties and will not directly contribute to increased low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol) levels. These plant antidepressant foods are therefore associated with fewer negative trade-offs than animal food sources containing the same nutrients.

Can Serotonin, Dopamine and Tryptophan Affect Mood?

Some foods can be used to increase the production of dopamine and serotonin in our bodies. Studies like this one from 2016 find that low serotonin levels can increase the risk of “decreased” or worsened mood. This same study states that supplementing tryptophan – an essential amino acid – can have a positive affect on memory and attention. Research by Barbara Strasser, Johanna M Gostner, Dietmar Fuchs reasons that diets rich in tryptophan can improve mood and cognition. Its worth noting that there are several factors to consider when assessing the causal relationship between gut microbiota and mental states, including the baseline inflammation levels of the individual being studied, their immunological state and other elements which influence mental well-being or emotions.

What Foods Are Anti-Inflammatory?

Inflammation has many different causes across the body. Inflammation is the body’s immune response to infections, injuries, diseases and disorders which generally helps the body heal itself. Sometimes inflammation occurs when its not suppose to, or it may occur in excess, or persist longer than it needs to. In these cases, inflammation can be the source of physiological problems, rather than the solution to them. Cardiovascular disease, diabetes and allergies are conditions associated with chronic inflammation. Certain substances, foods and plants contain anti-inflammatory properties, also called antiphlogistics, which can be used to reduce or manage inflammation levels.

What Is Inflammation?

Inflammation is your immune system’s cellular and molecular reaction aimed at healing harmful stimuli that may be prompted by several factors, including pathogens, damaged cells, toxic compounds, or irradiation. The inflammatory response happens when specialized cells recognize detrimental stimuli and activate inflammatory pathways. Once inflammatory markers are released, inflammatory cells are sent to respond to the inciting stimuli.


Berries are arguable the most essential anti-inflammatory food item. Blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, elderberries, raspberries and strawberries – as well as dozens of other fruits – contain anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are pigments that have an array of health benefits. This miraculous compound is anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-obesity, anti-angiogenesis, anti-cancer, anti-diabetes, anti-microbial. Not to mention, most fruits and berries are rich in antioxidants, meaning that they help protect bodily cells against oxidative stress.

Great Value Antioxidant Blend with strawberries, blueberries and rasberries
Great Value Antioxidant Blend with strawberries, blueberries and rasberries


Turmeric is an India-native plant which is readily available in most super markets and local groceries around the world. Turmeric contains curcumin, which has been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, a protein complex involved in cellular inflammatory responses. Curcumin has also proven useful in improving systemic markers of oxidative stress, which is closely associated with inflammation and chronic disease.

Capsicum Baccatum Peppers

Capsicum baccatum is a South American and South African species of chili pepper that is has a sweetish flavor and a pungent, hot taste. A 2012 study by researchers Aline Rigon Zimmer, Bianca Leonardi, DiogoMiron, Elfrides Schapoval, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira and Grace Gosmann suggests that the butanol and the crude ethanolic extracts of Capsicum baccatum showed anti-inflammatory effects.


Broccoli contains phytonutrients, vitamins (C, A, K and B) and is low in fat. Broccoli can be used to treat oxidation and fight disease. Broccoli suppresses pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1β by blocking NF-κB production in the body.