Cowspiracy Ocean Facts Summary

Fisheries harvest marine organisms across the globe. While fisheries do generate food and profit, they could be doing much more harm than good for underwater ecosystems. The film Cowspiracy makes a convincing case for the deleterious affect that large-scale fishing operations have on ocean environments, species variety and species abundance. Cowspiracy depicts modern fishing as a largely unsustainable industry that could lead to fishless oceans by 2048.

fish near water surface
Fish near water surface

Fishing As Depicted By Cowspiracy

Fish and other marine life are mostly hunted as food. However, some species are used for other commodities. Sharks, for example, are sometimes hunted for their skin which can be used in the making of leather. Other species like whales and manatees are regularly harmed or killed unintentionally by getting caught in fishing nets. The Cowspiracy Facts page sites a Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) document which states that in the year 2017, between 51 – 167 billion farmed fishes had been killed for food. That same year an estimated 250 – 600 billion crustaceans were also farmed and killed for food. Even animals that are not eaten by humans are caught and killed inadvertently because of drift netting or trawling. Susan Hartland of Conservation Society says that animal populations are being extracted from oceans more quickly than they can recover. Marine species are therefore collapsing under the immense pressures of modern hunting. The unintended catches, sharks, sea turtles and dolphins, are referred to as bykill.

Keystone Species and Trophic Cascades

Apex predators often act as keystone species, meaning that they have disproportionately large effects in their natural environments. This makes the removal of sharks particularly concerning. As top predators, many sharks species exert top down influence in their respective food webs. The removal of sharks, and other keystone species increases trophic cascade risks. Trophic cascades are the ecological chain of events triggered by the removal or addition of top predators.

Agriculture, Fishing and Algae Blooms

“Livestock operations on land have created more than 500 nitrogen flooded dead zones around the world in our oceans…” According to Dr. Richard Oppenlander, an environmental researcher featured in the Cowspiracy film. Water pollution comes in the form of pesticides, herbicides, heavy metals, plastics and other waste material. However, animal agriculture is the leading cause of ocean pollution – a fact which is stated explicitly in the Cowspiracy film. Animal agriculture run-off upsets nutrient balances in aquatic ecosystems by introducing phosphorus, nitrogen, manure and potassium from chemical fertilizers. These excess nutrients can cause alae blooms, leading to uninhabitable zones for marine species. Blooms of algae drain sunlight and deplete oxygen levels – making the environment unsuitable for most other lifeforms in the ecosystem.

Bottom trawling contributes to inhabitable zones similarly. Bottom trawling, also referred to as “dragging” involves casting a fishing net to the sea floor. Trawling disturbs sediments along the sea floor which causes carbon to be released. Once carbon dioxide is released from sediments, it is then absorbed by ocean seawater. Elevated carbon levels allow water to trap in more heat and further facilitate algae and plant overgrowth.

The Disappointment of COP26: Reviewing the Glasgow Pact

COP26 is the 26th United Nations Climate Change conference which took place this November, 2021, in Glasgow. One of the primary goals of COP26 was to limit global average temperature rise to well below 2℃ by the middle of the 21st century. According to the Paris Climate Agreement, participant nations are also encouraged to pursue efforts to limit warming to 1.5℃ relative to preindustrial levels by mid century. COP26 was to be the latest installment in this ongoing conversation between world leaders, corporations and intergovernmental committees. Ultimately, COP26 did not present any serious guarantees of reaching the Paris Climate Agreement’s short term or long term goals. COP26 only concluded with ambiguous, unambitious goals.

Ambiguous, Unambitious Goals

Toward the end of the 2 week United Nations Climate Change conference, a meaningful change was made to the wording of the final decision. The phasing out of coal, was changed to the phasing down of coal. The latter wording can be found in the Glasgow Pact document. Sources reveal that this change was first proposed by representatives from India, and garnered support from China. As coal combusts, several airborne pollutants are released, including sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon dioxide, particulates and ash. Coal burning is a prominent element climate destabilization, as it contributes to global warming and increasingly acidic oceans. Though COP26 is the first climate agreement to explicitly mention coal, the tentative promise to phase down coal use this century is not assuring.

The Glasgow Pact “emphasizes the need to mobilize climate finance from all sources to reach the level
needed to achieve the goals of the Paris Agreement, including significantly increasing
support for developing country Parties, beyond USD 100 billion per year… . As for the US$100 billion per year by 2020 pledge, first proposed in 2009, the Glasgow Pact “notes with deep regret that the goal” has not yet been met, but secures no further progress on this front.

This is a failure to small island and developing nations, who are already feeling the effects of climate change and are predicted to be disproportionately affected due to less resilient economies. Protests outside of COP26 erupted before the final event officially concluded. Hundreds of civil society representatives were dissatisfied with the conclusions reached during the climate convention. Even more frustrations have been articulated online.

COP26 tweet

The 7th subtitle, “Implementation“, makes no explicit commitments

The “implementation” section of the Glasgow pact likewise makes no explicit commitments. Without the implementation of targets, meaningful action can not be achieved. That said, more promises are likewise insufficient answers to immediate to answer immediate concerns for relief and infrastructure investments. COP26 has largely failed small island nations and those with emerging economies in this regard.

Cowspiracy Summary: Rainforest Facts

The official Cowspiracy website lists references aimed at supporting the arguments and conclusions proposed in the film on its “Facts” page. The page of supporting documents has 9 categories, including Ocean, Wildlife, Land, Waste, Water, Greenhouse Gases, Rainforest and Humanity. The documents listed in the Rainforest facts section describe the importance of rainforest ecosystems and demonstrate the effect that poor land use – such as monoculture farming, cattle ranching, conversions deforestation and development – have on rainforest ecosystems. We’ve devised a terse summation of the curated Cowspiracy texts with the hope of illustrating the ecological costs associated with land misuse.

Ecological Degradation

Rainforest ecosystems are inhabited by more plant and animal species than any other terrestrial ecosystem. The Cowspiracy Facts page states in one of its Rainforest subtitles that “the leading cause of rainforest destruction are livestock and feed crops”. Clearing forests to make way for land pastures and agriculture feed plots is done in Costa Rica, Honduras, and El Salvador to meet the demand for American beef. Cattle ranching is a low cost, low maintenance operation to run in the tropics. Cattle ranching generates profit for land owners, farmers and distributors.

Nonetheless, livestock feeding plots require sections of forests and other vegetation to be cleared first to make space for pastures and animal crops. Clearing vegetation can increases risks to various processes that rainforest vegetation help carry out, including enhanced water absorption into soils, sequestration of greenhouse gases from the atmosphere, summoning rainfall, providing nutrients to plant-consuming species and serving as habitats for arboreal species. These are examples of ecosystem services provided to rainforest environments and the species within them. Services like these emerge from the biological, chemical and physical functions in rainforest environments.

wild tropical flowers
tropical flowers

“What Cowspiracy: The Sustainability Secret” Says About Rainforests

The growth of human populations has driven our demand for food and textiles to rise, which has ramped up animal agriculture in tropical forests. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), agriculture approximately 15% of the Amazon forest has been removed due to agricultural practices since 1960s. Of the land being used by humans, 80% of it is dedicated to grazing areas for horses, cattle, sheep, or pigs. Put another way, cattle ranching for agriculture is the central use of land in the Amazon basin, which includes Brazil, Peru and Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Guyana, Surinam and French Guyana. These regions are subjected to slash and burn clearing before feeding pastures can be established. Therefore, cattle ranching is the leading cause of deforestation in the Amazon Basin. On top of that, animal agriculture contributes to methane emissions, ocean acidification and worsened air quality.

Save The Amazon

Savetheamazon.org refers to the plant and animal species of the Amazonian rainforests as its “wealth’. The site posits that up to 80% of developed nation’s diets are sourced from tropical rainforests. Our fruits, (avocados, coconuts, figs, oranges, lemons, grapefruit, pineapples, and tomatoes) vegetables (corn, potatoes and yams) spices, (cayenne, chocolate, cinnamon, ginger, sugar cane, turmeric) have their origins in tropical ecosystems.

Without these contributions, the diets of developed nations would be severely restricted. Equally as important, rainforests like the Amazon help abate flooding by storing tremendous amounts of rainwater in its plants and soils. However, the continued functionality of tropical rainforests depends on how sustainably we use the land. Harvesting from rainforests at rates faster than they are able to naturally replenish themselves may contribute to permanent changes of the ecological structures within rainforests.

Whales As Ecosystem Engineers

A new study published in Nature sheds light on the roles whales play in marine ecosystems. Researchers used metabolic models to estimate whale feeding volumes. Whale tagging and acoustic acoustic measurements were used to calculate whale prey densities in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern Oceans. Their results suggest that previous assessments greatly underestimated baleen whale prey consumption. Further, researchers reason that larger whale populations would add to the “productivity” of marine ecosystems by perpetuating iron recycling.

whale tail protruding from ocean's surface

Prey Consumption and Nutrient Cycling

Baleen whales are the largest carnivorous marine mammals, so naturally, they feed on tremendous amounts of krill, zooplankton and other prey. Krill is turned over in stomachs of whales (Mysticeti). Once krill has been digested, their iron contents are released back out into the aquatic ecosystem where it floats towards the water’s surface due to water pressure. Iron rich excrement yields nutrients for phytoplankton, which are microscopic plants that use photosynthesis to make energy.

Phytoplankton are then consumed by other creatures in the environment, including krill! Krill feed on the phytoplankton that grow using the nutrients from recycled metabolized – recycled – krill. In other words, baleen whales populations perpetuate nutrient cycling. At one level, krill are consumed by whales. Subsequently, whale waste supplements phytoplankton growth, which helps sustains krill populations.

By comparing the prey consumption more than 300 tracked whales in this new study to per-capita consumption estimates from the early 20th century, researchers were able to reason that southern krill populations has to be considerably higher than they are today. Whales were found to eat up to three times more krill and other prey than previous assessments have supposed.

Researchers were able to determine how much whales eat by tagging individual whales by attaching electronic devices on their backs. These electronic devices carry cameras, microphones and of course, GPS locators. These electronic tags, in conjunction with acoustic measurements of prey biomass, informed researchers on whale eating cycles and intake volume. Of course, prey intake varies between different species of whale.

The Krill Paradox

The almost infamous krill paradox refers to the mystery in marine ecosystems regarding the removal of large predators, like whales. When whales are hunted, and their populations consequently decrease, so do the population sizes of krill. This perplexes researchers because they intuitively expect krill populations to grow wildly in the absence of whales which eats thousands of tons of krill daily. Instead, the opposite is true: as whales are removed from the ecological system, krill populations shrink. The new study illuminates exactly why this phenomenon occurs. Krill depend on whales to produce nutrients for the microscopic plants that they eat. Declines in whale species members leads to fewer iron being sent toward the water’s surface in the form of whale excrement. Which ultimately contributes to less plentiful meals available for krill populations.

Implications For Restoration

The conclusions of this study may have potential for marine ecosystem restoration efforts. Conserving or enhancing marine ecosystems will not only demand limits on whale hunting, but also for the deliberate effort of whales, and likely other influential species. Species like whales are evidently essential for the continued functionality of the ecosystem that they are enveloped in.

Is Indigo Farming A Nature-Based Solution?

Indigo Agriculture aims to improve carbon sequestration in commercial and private farm soils as a climate change mitigation strategy. On the face of it, this solution seems viable. With the use of their microbial seed inoculants, Indigo farming increases soil health and carbon sequestration as a result, which makes measurable improvements in crop yields.

Better farming practices allows plants and soils to take in more water and nutrients and produces larger quantities of healthy crops. More crops with better health. This amounts to more carbon sequestration in crops and soils that have received the Indigo treatment. But will farming practices be enough to address climate change on a global scale?

converted monoculture plot
converted monoculture plot

What Are Nature-Based Solutions

Nature-based solutions are practices which protect, sustainably manage, restore or otherwise enhance natural ecosystems in an effort to limit the effects of climate change by increasing natural resiliency. Natural environments already possess the ability to recover after losses from things like wildfire damage, storms or volcanic eruption. Changes like these often degrade ecosystems and can take decades or perhaps centuries to recover from naturally.

Given sufficient time, however, nutrients reoccur in the environment, vegetation regrows and species return. Nature-based solutions are human’s way of supplementing nature’s regenerative aptness. Nature-based solutions may include reforesting, rewilding and bioengineering techniques. The intention is to assist ecosystems as they nurse themselves back to health through natural processes.

The greatest carbon sinks are biological stores – plants, macrobacteria and animals, soils, and bodies of water. Without sinks, greenhouse gases are unable to cycle through Earth, instead, they remain in our atmosphere and add to average heat maximums. Though we can not undo the colossal impact that we’ve anthropogenic activity have already had on biodiversity and natural habitats, we can limit our impact moving forward. Nature-based solutions enable ecospheres to regulate climate and secure climate stabilization.

Can Indigo Agriculture Address Climate Change On A Global Scale?

Managed ecosystems should not be overlooked as they as meaningful climate action. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization five billion hectares. In other words, about 38 percent of all land being used globally is dedicated to farming techniques in some fashion. As human populations grow, so too does our reliance on nature’s contributions. Indigo Agriculture may help set a new standard in farming strategies, or at least cause farmers to rethink large scale farming operations.

Soils that have been damaged from over-fertilization and monoculture practices can be given new hope with Indigo Agriculture‘s patented technology. Farming practices that discourage plant diversity through herbicide use or over use pesticides degrade soil quality over time. Degraded soils are usually less fertile, meaning that they absorb less water, take in fewer nutrients and support less plant life than otherwise healthy soils. Damaged soils are characterized by disease, poor nutrient absorption, inefficient water absorption and inferior crop yields. Indigo farming improves disease resistance, nutrient and water intake and severe weather resilience. Improving plant health, diversity and overall growth will allow for more nutrients and water to flow down into soils.

Environmental DNA Sampling In Conservation

Environmental deoxyribonucleic acid, also known as environmental DNA or EDNA, is a method of surveying distribution patterns and population sizes for species within an ecological community. eDNA makes use of genetic deposits that organisms leave behind. Ecologists use hair, fecal matter, feathers and any other forensic like evidence that they can find in an environment. Using EDNA to sample populations is minimally invasive, and does not involve extracting genetic material directly from the targeted organisms. Anthropogenic disturbances continue to plague ecosystems the world over, affecting species abundance, species variety, migratory patterns and habitats.

tiny frog on forest woods floor
tiny frog in vast woods

Advantages of EDNA in Conservation

Without biodiversity measurements, conservations can’t know how which species are being lost, or how species populations change over time. Measuring biodiversity is not as simple as measuring force or distance; biological diversity can be understood in a multitude of ways. For example, some researchers use species richness -the total number of different species – to quantify diversity. Others may count the number of individual organisms of each species in an area. What’s important is that the community being sampled gives us basic information about occurrence, distribution and abundance of the observed species. The EDNA technique aims to avoid putting unnecessary stress on the environment and species involved. Conservationists, then, can use eDNA to survey species and habitats while doing their part to keep ecosystems intact.

Accuracy and Limitations For eDNA Sampling

Sampling builds our knowledge of species and how they are distributed which informs conservation projects and environmental policy. Environmental DNA can carry information about the life of the organism involved, like other creatures it may interact with or what foods may be part of its diet. This may not always be possible by photographing species. While it may be possible by capturing and tagging animals, these methods present other limitations.

Some species are simply difficult to detect. This may be because the species itself may be incredibly small, or its populations sizes are spread thin, making the targeted species too elusive to detect by conventional means. Sampling with eDNA can eliminate limitations associated with capturing species, photographing them or tracking. However, eDNA can not be used to determine population quality information such bodily features and sex ratios. Therefore DNA retrieved from environments must be used in conjunction with other detection techniques to some degree.

COP26: Helping the Least Developed Countries Adapt

coastal city, grass and trees
coastal territory

The Conference of Parties (COP), established by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is a convention of governmental representatives and scientific experts for discussing climate change. COP26 will be the next COP gathering and will take place in November, 2021. World leaders participating in COP26 will discuss topics ranging from mitigation strategies to extensive economic reforms.

The countries most capable of adapting to climate change are those who have relatively high incomes and low economic vulnerability. These nations are more equipped to deal with climate destabilization than low income countries with high economic vulnerability. This is because higher income nations can afford to invest in net-zero transition projects, adaptation technologies and more resilient infrastructure.

Are Poorer Countries More Affected by Climate Change?

Lower-income nations by contrast have economies that are less capable of investing in green revolutions. Dealing with decreases in crop yields and infrastructure damage as a result of climate change is be more difficult in countries that have vulnerable economies because people in these regions tend to be more dependent on agriculture and other contributions from nature, such as fishing or logging. Increases in adverse weather events or changes in climate also threaten tourism in small island developing states. Under the influence of climate change, the least developed communities are expected to have a harder time rebuilding with limited finances and resources.

COP26 Outcomes

Climate finances are the funds planned to be provided to highly vulnerable nations to aid in addressing climate change and its impacts. Funds like the Green Climate Fund were created as financial support systems that lower income nations could draw from for new initiatives and adaptation. Alternative methods for climate finance include loans, export credits and government donations. The pledged for $100 billion a year (by 2020) for developing nations has been discussed as a central issue since 2009.

COP26 is an opportunity for relatively high income nations to sort out the details of their pending commitments. They are the primary beneficiaries of fossil fuel use, and are therefore liable for the consequences associated with climate destabilization. The territories that make up the Group of 20 (G20) generate more than half of the world’s anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and make up most of the world’s gross domestic product. These nations then have the greatest responsibility to help support people in highly vulnerable regions and small island states.

How Indigo Agriculture Can Enhance Greenhouse Gas Absorption

By making advancements in agriculture science, Indigo Agriculture could improve farmland soil quality and enhance carbon sequestration as a result. Indigo Agriculture’s patented microscopic organism treatment is used to coat seeds so that they grow into plants which are resilient to adverse abiotic conditions and weather. These plants are also more resistant to pathogens and more capable at taking in water and nutrients than untreated plants.

What Benefits Do Indigo’s Seed Treatments Provide?

Indigo Agriculture’s microbe treatments are inoculants that offer some impressive benefits across plant species. Indigo farming microbe seed inoculants – known as, Biotrinsic – improves corn response to heat stress and drought. In wheat, inoculants provide disease control of Fusarium and Rhizoctonia – fungi that disturb plant growth potentials. In soybeans, one of the most planted crops in the United States, Indigo Agriculture’s inoculants aid in plant nodulation and enzymatic production.

In all cases, these microbial treatments make plants more resistant to adverse conditions that could undermine health and growth. Indigo Agriculture’s microbe inoculants are naturally derived and non-GMO. Indigo extracts microorganisms from plants that have survived “extreme stress”, versus plants that have not. Microbes from resilient plants are then used to coat seedlings and impart similar advantages to future yields.

Indigo Farming Implications For Climate Change

Once plants capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, they are able to move that carbon into their roots, then into microorganisms in surrounding soils. This carbon is transferred ever deeper into the soil, biosphere and eventually the necrosphere where it will remain stored for millennia. Global agriculture practices are an opportunity to remove carbon from the atmosphere and achieve a low-carbon future.

Implementing large scale agriculture operations that can make an appreciable difference in greenhouse gas levels on a global scale will require aggressive efforts by farmers and other agriculturalists. Indigo farming techniques – in conjunction with other regenerative ecosystem practices – could enhance global decarbonization. By improving the survival rates for plants, Indigo Agriculture undoubtedly improves the rate at which crops and soils absorb greenhouse gases and other nutrients.

The way that humanity interacts with natural environments is defined by how well we use Earth’s water and land. If we can make more efficient use of nature’s contributions, then perhaps we can abate our environmental crisis. So called, ‘climate smart practices’ are a wide range of methodologies and technologies that enhance ecosystem function and support diversity of life.

clear sky horizon with clouds and trees
clear sky horizon with bountiful vegetation

U.S. Declares Ivory-Billed Woodpecker and 23 Other Species Extinct

After years of empty searches, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service has just declared more than 20 species extinct. The list of extinct species has one plant, a bat, two fish, eight freshwater mussels, eleven birds. Moving these species from the ‘endangered species’ list to the ‘extinct’ list marks the end of official search efforts to find these creatures.

One of the more popular birds, the ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis), is endemic to the United States southeast and Cuba. This beard has not had a confirmed siting in decades, and thus, some officials have concluded that the bird has died out entirely. There doesn’t appear to be a consensus on the matter; some believe that its premature to give up searching for Campephilus principalis.

Delaying the extinction declaration may be of instrumental value. Once a species has been deemed extinct, its likely that searches will cease completely, placing limits on conservation efforts, funding and incentives for further research on the species. However, this is not a sufficient reason to keep an unfruitful search going. Unfortunately, the conservation of one species (or even a few) is not enough to reverse the ecological alterations which contribute to extinctions. Ecological systems as a whole must be protected, not just select species within them.

forestry in Illinois reserve

The “Legendary” Ivory-Billed Woodpecker

The disappearance of the ivory-billed woodpecker foreshadows the looming fate for species in wetlands around the world, as these ecological systems are especially sensitive to flooding, temperature fluctuations and drought. Extinctions can have several different causes. In some cases, the causes may be non-anthropological: changes in average temperatures or climate could make a species’ habitat unsuitable for reproduction. Another possibility, a disease eradicates the members of a species. That said, we can not rule out human activities as a possible proximate cause in the ivory-billed woodpeckers disappearance. If this is the case, environmental degradation would likely have been a driving force.

Wetlands

The destruction and logging of America’s forests have undoubtedly played an adverse role in the shrinking populations of Campephilus principalis. The ivory-billed woodpecker’s are known to inhabit forests with close access to water. The trees of wetlands are usually where they make their nests.

Wetlands are areas where water inundates land either seasonally or permanently. Wetlands exist in almost every landmass on Earth, and are characterized by the specialized type of vegetation that grows in wet soil. There are multiple kinds of wetlands, marine wetlands exist along coasts and are tolerant of saltwater. Marine wetlands differ from riverine wetlands, which have channels of water influenced by rivers or streams.

Wetlands are hailed as nurseries for wildlife because of the vast amount of wildlife that mature wetland environments can support. The protection of wetland biodiversity is effectively the protection of many unique species of plants and animals (not to mention microorganisms) that dwell within them. Protecting these ecological systems will greatly enhance the odds of salvaging other types of organisms and protect the ecological services that they provide.

Cowspiracy Summary: Wildlife Facts

The Cowspiracy film draws a cogent connection between animal agriculture and our climate change crisis. The film uses evidence-based research to support its claims about human activity across sectors, including how much land is being used and how humanity interacts with Earth’s animal populations and plant populations.

Cowspiracy’s references can be found on its official website under the “Facts” section. References for wildlife information include the The United States Bureau of Land Management, Predator Defense and a few individual opinion pieces. Most notably, a paper by author Vaclav Smil (2011), entitled “Harvesting the Biosphere: The Human Impact”. This document posits that human activities, primarily deforestation and ecosystem conversion, have demonstrably changed Earth’s biomass (both in its phytomass and its zoomass). For thousands of years, humans have used agriculture to help produce its resources. And because we’re omnivores, we have manipulated the plants around us as well as the use of certain animals in agriculture settings, such as cows, sheep, pigs, and poultry.

Benchmark Map of Forest Carbon Stocks In Tropical Regions Across Three Continents

The industrialization of agriculture production greatly enhanced the ability to raise livestock and grow specific crops. The conjunction of these activities has contributed to alterations in tropical forests, lakes and coral reefs ecosystems. The planet’s biomass, especially its phytomass, has paid a toll for excessive human use, according to Vaclav Smil.

Smil refers to observational data collected from Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents, and light detection and ranging, LIDAR, to reveal the vertical structure of forests (NASA 2010) as evidence to suggest that the global index of phytomass has decreased as human energy use has increased. Furthermore, as the populations of humans and domesticated animals have climbed in the most developed nations, zoomass of wild terrestrial animals has fallen. Earth’s total biomass then, is disproportionately made up of humans and domesticated animals relative to population sizes which preceded industrialization.

Bureau of Land Management and Predator Defense

Both the Bureau of Land Management and Predator Defense sources mention on Cowspiracy’s “Facts” page are short reads which share a common thread: the United States has authorized the killing of wild fauna. The Bureau of Land Management states that killing wildlife populations is aimed at reducing “overall herd growth rates”. The Wildlife Services on the other hand kills fauna to protect agriculture crops on both private and public lands. These methods go beyond wildlife management. Unfortunately, techniques that involve forcibly eliminating fauna further narrows the populations of animals that make up Earth’s total biomass, thereupon degrading biodiversity in favor of a limited selection of species.

two tucans in managed environment