Fossil Fuels

Fossil fuels are organic substances that are removed from the Earth’s crust and used for energy. The remnants of decomposing biota (mostly plants and animals) naturally create carbon- and hydrogen-plentiful compounds (also known as hydrocarbons) as they become buried, compressed and heated over millions of years. Hydrocarbon deposits are then extracted from underground sources by way of mining, hydraulic fracturing, and drilling. Burning hydrocarbons produces heat energy which powers engines, generates electricity and supports industrial processes.

In the 21st century, fossil fuels are burned to meet most human energy needs. They also serve as the base for common plastic products, such as shopping bags, car parts, containers, electronics and clothing. Our reliance on fossil fuels is increasing the net amount of heat energy in the planet’s atmosphere, causing global average temperatures to rise. The resultant greenhouse gases from burning these fuels also contributes to ocean acidification, air pollution and water pollution.

Fossil Fuels Definition


The phrase ‘fossil fuels’ generically refers to hydrocarbon-containing materials formed by the burial of photosynthetic organisms (life forms that use sunlight to synthesize nutrients like oxygen and sugars from water and carbon dioxide). Hydrocarbons are molecules consisting of bonded hydrogen and carbon atoms. The stored energy in fossilized hydrocarbon compounds release energy in the form of heat when burned. Hydrocarbon combustion, the chemical reaction in which hydrocarbons interact with oxygen, also produces water and carbon dioxide.

How Fossil Fuels Are Formed

Fossil fuels are formed by geological processes acting on the remains of living organisms from millions of years ago. As fossil compounds become buried deeper and deeper underground, they are exposed to increasing amounts of pressure and heat, which transform them into coal, natural gas or oil. The form that the ancient remains take depends on the type of organic matter involved, the amount of time its been buried and the degree pressure and temperature. For example, plankton and algae can naturally transition from kerogen to petroleum if given enough time.

Fossil Fuels Used For

Fossil fuels have a diverse range of uses across sectors in civilization. Oil specifically, has byproducts that are used in pesticides and fertilizers. Natural gas is sometimes used to for refrigerating and cooling equipment, and to heat buildings. Coal, perhaps the most abundant fuel source, is critical for the generation of electricity. Fossil fuels may continue to dominate our energy economy because strategies and technologies for their extraction continue to improve.

Fossil Fuels Examples

Here are a few examples of fossil fuels, and products that contain them:

  • Propane
  • Butane
  • Peat products
  • Refinery feedstocks
  • Phones
  • Lubricants
  • Insulation
  • Solvents
  • Ink
  • Antifreeze
  • Diesel fuel
  • Motor Oil
  • Gasoline
  • Roofing materials
  • Detergents
  • Clothes made of synthetic fibers; including polyester, polyurethane, acrylic and nylon
  • CDs/computer disks
  • Glue
  • Petroleum Jelly
  • Fertilizers
  • Pesticides
  • Prosthetic limbs
  • Solar Panels
  • Asphalt
  • Cosmetics containing paraffin wax
  • Computer keyboards and monitors
  • Paints

What Are the 5 Effects of Climate Change?

Human influence on Earth’s climate systems is now an established fact corroborated by observational records and climate models. The term “climate change” broadly refers to the long-term shifts in average temperatures and weather patterns that have been measured since the pre-industrial era. In essence, there are five symptoms associated with climate change: 1) increased surface temperatures, 2) rising sea levels, 3) melting ice sheets, 4) declining biodiversity, and 5) decreased agriculture production.

What Are the Effects of Rising Temperatures?

Rising surface, ocean, and atmospheric temperatures, also known as global warming, is perhaps the most influential symptom of climate change. As average daily temperatures gradually increase, there may be more incidents of heatwaves and droughts. Global warming also adds to the likelihood of wildfire occurrences. Evapotranspiration-the combination of water evaporation, soil moisture evaporation, and plant transpiration-rids soils and vegetation of their moisture. Dried-out plant matter acts as kindling during wildfires and enables the spread of flames.

Excess heat may also be hazardous to human health. People who are exposed to extreme heat can experience a range of conditions, including heat stroke, heat exhaustion, heat cramps, or heat rashes.

Why Is Sea Level Rise a Problem?

Sea level rise is related to the melting of land-ice and thermal expansion in seawater caused by heating oceans. The most affected communities are those along coasts. Coastal systems are more sensitive to rising seas because of their low elevation and proximity to large bodies of water. Erosion from intense wave action and flooding threatens coastal infrastructure more than that of high-elevation and inland territories. On top of that, coasts are highly vulnerable to extreme storms such as tropical cyclones. Coastal storms, including hurricanes and tropical storms, generate powerful ocean waves and harsh winds that indiscriminately damage property and claim lives.

How Does Melting Ice Sheets Affect the Environment?

Ice sheets are permanent masses of ice that cover vast amounts of land in Greenland and Antarctica. Under the influence of global warming, ice sheets melt more quickly. Water from melting land ice inevitably flows into seas and contributes to rising sea levels. In return, increasing amounts of melting sea ice loss reinforce global warming. This is because brightly colored snow and ice surfaces reflect sunlight back into space, whereas darkly colored sea water absorbs sunlight and heat energy. As ice sheets melt, Greenland and Antarctica will continue to heat up, and vice versa.

Permafrost (layers of subsurface soil, gravel, and sand that stay frozen year-round) stores plant material and keep them from decomposing as long as they remain frozen. Thawing these icy structures will allow the natural breakdown of plant materials to take place. When organic materials decompose, an array of greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are released into the atmosphere and intensify global heating.

Biodiversity Loss Effects

A report published in 2021 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) drew a connection between climate change and biodiversity loss. According to the report, long-term climatological shifts have the potential to adversely alter a wide range of ecosystems.

For example, ocean acidification, which is driven by warming sea temperatures, can be harmful to species that form shells and skeletons from calcium and carbonate. When large amounts of atmospheric carbon dioxide are absorbed by seawater, the water’s pH is reduced and the amount of carbonate ions decreases. Ocean acidification can make shells and skeletons grow more slowly or dissolve more quickly, leaving species like scallops, corals, sea urchins, and clams more prone to impaired health.

How Does Climate Change Affect Agriculture?

The physical effects of climate change could influence agriculture production in a myriad of ways because crops depend on suitable environmental conditions to grow. Crop growth can be disturbed by shifts in air temperature or losses in soil biodiversity.

A 2017 study titled, “Temperature Increase Reduces Global Yields of Major Crops in Four Independent Estimates“, compiled results from four analytical methods (global grid-based models, local point-based models, statistical regressions, and field-warming experiments). They discovered that “without CO2 fertilization, effective adaptation, and genetic improvement, each degree-Celsius increase in global mean temperature would, on average, reduce global yields…”. Exposure to hotter temperatures may therefore contribute to abiotic stress for crops. Assuming that this is true, climate change will make food security threats more pronounced in the future.

What Is Vegan Leather Made Out Of?

There’s no denying that leather occupies an exceptional place in fashion. So a nice-looking pair of vegan leather pants or a functional bag is a must for anyone looking to make their closet cruelty-free and more sustainable. This way, you can be confident in what you decide to wear and guilt-free about your purchase.

Vegan Leather Fabric

Vegan leather fabrics are essentially imitation leather. The benefit of choosing vegan leather is that its less costly to manufacture, which means its retail value is usually lower. On top of that, faux leathers do not contain animal products or products tested on animals. The ethical concerns surrounding fast fashion have caused brands like Burberry, Gucci, Versace and Prada to ban fur in recent years.

The Truth About Vegan Leather

Vegan leather should not necessarily be thought of as an eco-friendly alternative to real leather. Most vegan and faux leathers are made of synthetic polymers, which are derived from nonrenewable petrochemicals, i.e. crude oil and natural gases. At each phase of plastic’s lifecycle, from fossil fuel extraction and refining, to manufacturing and use, and even end-of-life (incineration, recycling) greenhouse gases are generated because of these petrochemical ingredients. According to a study titled “Microfiber Release from Different Fabrics During Washing“, leathers made of synthetic plastics shed pollutants during wash and dry cycles. When plastic fabrics are exposed to physical stress, they release microfibers and greenhouse gases into the air and water.

Plant-Based Leather

The good news is that not all vegan leathers are made equal. Plant-based leathers are more environmentally friendly than conventional plastic leathers, and they’re vegan! Plant-based leather is made from repurposed plant material and agriculture wastes. If you’re interested in sustainable vegan leather, then make sure the fabric that you buy is manufactured from organic, renewable sources rather than synthetic plastics.

What Is Vegan Leather Made From?

Vegan leather is often made from polyurethane or polyvinyl chloride. Polyurethane, sometimes abbreviated as PU, is a type of organic polymer composed of urethane (rubber) links. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC), another popular synthetic plastic polymer, is made of polymerized vinyl chloride. Both PVC and PU leather are made to mimic the look and feel of real animal skin, but their properties are quite different. Vegan leather is thinner and more lightweight than conventional leather and vegan leather will not peel or crack over time, as it does not require moisture like animal skins do.

Vegan Leather for Sale

If you’re interested in vegan leather products, consider shopping at Nordstrom, Target, Free People or Urban Outfitters. When buying your faux leather, be sure to read the product label to find out what materials its made from. Finding a vegan product is not the same as finding a plant-based one. Vegan fabrics will not necessarily contain any animal-derived materials, but may contain synthetic plastics, which can contribute to the build-up of pollutants in air and water ways. For more sustainable fashion, be sure that your purchases are made from renewable sources such as food waste, various crops, vegetable extracts and or wood.

Is SB 1383 Mandatory?

Californian flag and American flag
Californian and American Flags

Senate Bill 1383 (SB 1383) is California’s short-lived climate pollutant reduction law. The bill was enacted September 2019 to lower emissions of short-lived pollutants such as methane by 40%, relative to 2013 levels, no later than 2030. To achieve this objective, Californian food generators are being required to reduce their organic waste contributions.

California Landfill Methane Rule

SB 1383 limits the amount of organic decomposing material in landfills so that California’s total greenhouse gas emissions will decrease. Decomposing organic wastes, including foods, discharge so called “landfill gases” (LFG). LFGs are a combination of different greenhouse gases that are produced as organic wastes rot and break down.

In a sense, Senate Bill 1383 addresses food security and regional emissions reductions all at once. A fraction of food that would normally be disposed of in landfills or composts, must now be made available for human consumption. Some Californian households and businesses will have to initiate food recovery programs and or strengthen existing food recovery strategies.

Who Does SB 1383 Apply To?

SB 1383 requires specific food businesses to donate the maximum possible amount of edible food to food recovery organizations and for recycling. The law assumes two tiers for different kinds of edible food generators. “Tier One” includes supermarkets, grocery stores, food service providers and wholesale food vendors.

Restaurants, hotels, health facilities, certain education agencies and large venues and events are all considered “Tier Two”. Both tiers of food generators must donate as much food as they possibly can to food recovery organizations. Organizations and services that participate in SB 1383 are obligated to maintain records of the food being donated and the frequency of donations.

Who Passed SB 1383?

Edmund Brown Jr passed SB 1383 September 2016. Brown received his law degree from Yale and served as Governor of California from 1975 to 1983 and 2011 to 2019. By signing the bill into law, he established official methane emissions reduction targets that apply to most food generators across in the state.

Senate Bill 1383 California

Senate Bill 1383 went into effect January 1, 2022. By regulating organic waste disposal, California is expected to decrease its total greenhouse gas output while feeding hungry citizens at the same time. Organics may be recycled by composting and mulching. Some organic materials are converted into biogas, a renewable energy source, through a process known as aerobic digestion.

How Is Plastic Affecting the Arctic?

ice in the Arctic ocean
Ice in the Arctic ocean

A new review article, “Plastic Pollution in the Arctic“, contends that high levels of plastic pollution (including microplastics) have infiltrated the Arctic and intensified climate change’s effects. Plastics from agriculture, hydrocarbon exploration, landfills, illegal dumping, industry, households, fisheries, offshore industry and other such sources are routinely carried to and within the Arctic by atmospheric and aquatic circulation systems. As plastics move through the Arctic, they gradually break down and release greenhouses gases, including methane and ethylene.

Is There Plastic In the Arctic?

Transported plastics from local and distant sources are broadly distributed throughout the Arctic. The United Nations estimates that approximately 150 million tons plastic debris may be scattered across the Arctic. Plastics are found on Arctic shores, in the water column, in sea ice and in the bodies of marine biota.

How Does Plastic Pollution Affect Marine Life?

Arctic wildlife are known to ingest, become entangled in or smothered by plastic debris. “Plastic Pollution in the Arctic” reports that Arctic species such as sculpin (Triglops nybelini), the northern fulmar (Fulmarus glacialis) and belugas (Delphinapterus leucas) have been found with plastic inside them. Plastic ingestion may even affect marine invertebrates like zooplankton in the east Canadian Arctic and the Fram Strait (a sea channel between Greenland and Svalbard). The review further reports that the organismal impacts of plastic infiltration to many endemic species remain largely unknown.

The Fundamental Links Between Climate Change and Marine Plastic Pollution In The Artic

Plastics drive climate change, in return, climate influences distribution of plastics. Also, both climate change and plastics have oil and gas origins. Plastics are derived from greenhouse gases (GHGs) and continue to release GHGs throughout their life cycles as they degrade. Plastics and microplastics are thus expected to increase ocean heat content (OHC). According to “Plastic pollution in the Arctic”, plastics could also promote glacial thawing by affecting their light absorbance, structure and rheological properties.

Circulation systems, including wind, ocean currents and freshwater river flows, continue to move plastics through Arctic ecosystems long after they are originally introduced. Physical impacts associated with climate change effect the concentrations and distribution of plastic in the Arctic. Sea level rise or higher poleward wind speeds from global warming could transport greater levels of plastic debris to Arctic ecosystems.

These interactions suggest that climate change and plastic pollution are mutually reinforcing. The Arctic may be more sensitive to the effects of ocean warming and plastic pollution than most environments because of its permafrost, snow and ice. Climate change strategies aimed at mitigating ocean warming, will have to account for the emissions from plastic sources as well.

Vegandale In Chicago, IL

festival crowd with hands in the air
festival crowd

Vegandale is a food festival in Chicago, Illinois. Hundreds of people gather downtown every summer to celebrate animal welfare and sustainability. Approved Vegandale vendors are allowed to sale cruelty-free products, such as soaps, fashion, foods and drinks. The Chicago event is essentially an outdoor party that brings people from across the country together.

Vegandale’s cultural attractions are just as important as its food, it includes music, contests, performing artists, etc. For this reason, it attracts vegans as well as meat-eaters, and everyone in between. So while sampling great tasting plant-based foods, visitors can also be entertained.

Vegandale takes place at Grant Park, 100 S. Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL. The dates for Vegandale are Saturday, June 11th, 2022 – 11 am-7 pm.

Vegandale Chicago

Vegans and vegetarians are welcome to apply as vendors at Vegandale in Chicago. Visit their website to contact a representative for merchant opportunities. The event is 100% vegan, so all products must be free of animal derivatives. Vegandale emphasizes the moral imperative for the vegan lifestyle. Chicagoans are encouraged to step out of their comfort zone and try products that avoid animal exploitation. 

 Vegandale Chicago Tickets

Chicago Vegandale tickets are available online here. “Early Bird” tickets are only $10.00. Vegandale also has “Chicago Pack of 4” tickets for sale for $30.00. The tickets permit access to the event from 11:00 am – 7:00 pm. Vegandale allows children ages 12 and under to be admitted for free, as long as an adult ticket holder accompanies them. 

Vegan Festival 

People attend vegan festivals to share creative vegan and vegetarian dishes every year. The dishes on offer are ideal for clean eaters or anyone who’s dieting. These foods are generally light in calories and shouldn’t make you drowsy as you move through your day in Chicago. If you have not already been to a vegan festival, consider adding Vegandale to your list of stops.

Chicago Food Festival

Food festivals in Chicago can usually be a pain for parking; luckily, Vegandale suggests that its participants use Millennium Park Garage and Millennium Lakeside Garage. If driving is not an option, public transportation (train or bus) will certainly be your next best bet. If all else fails, consider renting a Divvy bike from one of the city’s 608 stations.

Goodfood Chicago

Goodfood is a well-known international food vendor. They will likely make another appearance at Vegandale 2022. Other vendors at the event include:

  • Vegan Street Food Chicago
  • The Bakehouse
  • Cinnaholic
  • Native Foods
  • Sweet Vegan Bites
  • Happy Bottom
  • Unearth Goodness
  • Mermaid’s Munchies
  • Danie’s Natural Juice Blends
  • Gr8 Bakes, Paulie Gee’s
  • Kale My Name
  • Justveggies
  • Vegan Bakers Man

Chicago Vegan Fest

If you’re a Chicago resident or just visiting, check to see if there are any vegan festivals that you might be interested in nearby. These fests make for a great time in the windy city during the summer. Whether you are going on a romantic date, vacationing with friends, or backpacking solo, events like Vegandale are well worth the price of admission.  

Are Climate Change and Plastic Pollution Related?

Plastic pollution and climate change are the most influential stressors to marine environments globally. These stressors are simultaneously occurring and interactive. Marine plastic pollution is made up of the plastic products that have accumulated in the world’s seas. From production to end-of-life, plastic materials release potent greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and ethylene (C2H4). Greenhouse gases from plastic materials contribute to ocean heating and exacerbate climate change.

Climate change refers to long term shifts in a region’s temperature or weather patterns. Climate events, such as flooding and storms, impact the concentration of plastic’s global distributions. A 2022 review titled “The Fundamental Links Between Climate Change and Marine Plastic Pollution” assembles evidence that demonstrate the feedback loops between climate change and marine plastic pollution.

How Does Climate Change Affect Pollution?

Plastics (including microplastics) are transported from place to place by way of winds, water flow patterns, and storms. Wind and storms can influence the dispersal of plastics. The same is true of flooding events and rainfall patterns. Climate change is already beginning to increase the frequency and magnitude of extreme weather phenomena, and will likely continue to spread plastics into novel environments, where they may disrupt ecosystems and or release heat trapping gases.

How Plastics Contribute To Climate Change

The 2022 review has three categories for plastic’s climate change contribution: “1) plastic production, transport and use; 2) plastic disposal, mis-managed waste and degradation; and 3) bio-based plastics”. From the very beginning of their life-cycle, plastic and bioplastics are greenhouse gas sources. Making plastic requires extracting organic materials, such as crude oil or plant matter, which are burned to be refined and processed. The resulting plastic must too be heated for molding and manufacturing. After use, the plastic product may be recycled, become landfilled, be incinerated, or end up an environmental pollutant. In each case, the plastic will emit more CO2 as it degrades or is melted, according to a 2019 study referenced.

Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Plastic Production

Climate change influences the distribution of plastic waste; plastic has substantial greenhouse gas contributions, which enhance ocean heating and climate change. Put another way, changes in climate and climate-driven extreme weather events influence the spread of plastic across environments, from oceans, to freshwater systems, to terrestrial areas. But co-concurrently, plastic influences climate change by releasing emissions twofold throughout its life-cycle; production (including refining and manufacturing) and after-use life (including landfills, recycling, incineration and environmental waste).

The Environmental Impact of GMOs

An article made available in Science Direct, 2022, unpacks the potential benefits that genetically modified crops have for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Authors of the document, Emma Kovak, DanBlaustein-Rejto and Matin Qaim, claim that “genetically modified (GM) crops can help reduce agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In addition to possible decreases in production emissions, GM yield gains also mitigate land-use change and related emissions”.

How Do GMOs Affect The Environment?

GM (genetically modified) crops are agriculture plants that have had stretches of DNA added, effectively modified or turned off within their genome to achieve desired traits. GM crops are commonly designed to be more resistant to insects and tolerant to herbicides. Modified crops can therefore lower the need for chemical pesticides, which are greenhouse gas contributors. Also, yield increases from GM crop use may prevent greenhouse gas emissions from the conversion of natural land (land that is uncultivated) to cropland. Land conversions promote greenhouse gas emissions through tilling and forest clearing.

GMO Climate Change Strategy

The article contrives a hypothetical scenario in which the European Union (EU) lifts its “quasi-ban” against widespread GM crop use. Authors of the article assume that yield increases from genetically modified crop adoption in the EU would offer benefits similar to those observed in other industrialized, temperate-zone countries that use modified crops. They further assume that enhanced crop production in the EU will bring about proportional decrease in agriculture production elsewhere. The latter of these assumptions is built on the belief that land will be spared (remain uncultivated) because the EU will be producing more crops domestically, consequently shrinking land conversion demands in outside territories.

Avoided emissions estimates from increased yield are intentionally underestimated in the article. Although authors state that “…higher GM crop adoption in the EU would likely also lead to higher [technology] adoption elsewhere”, their avoided emissions estimates do not account for the implementation of technology related to genetically modified crop use.

Avoided emissions estimates also do not account for the implementation of novel modified crops and traits. In other words, estimates are strictly based on well known genetically modified crops (soybean, cotton, canola, maize, and sugar beet) and the traits that they are designed with.

GMOs Reduce Carbon Emissions

Even though estimates are based on already-existing technology for modified crop application as well as already-existing modified plants and traits, it may be fair to assume that new technologies and new crops and traits would emerge from increased modified crop adoption in the European Union. Authors of the article assert that the EU can and should “increase agricultural productivity through embracing new crop technologies, thus contributing to global environmental benefits”.

GMO Benefits

Adopting genetically modified crops in places like Europe, which has higher wheat crop loss levels-caused by insects and pathogens-that the global average, may result in improved crop growth by making vegetation more resilient to environmental stressors, such as disease, insects and herbicide application. Increased vegetation is expected to lead to enhanced soil fertility and improve carbon absorption in soils and biomass. By boosting crop yields in areas that have not broadly accepted genetically modified vegetation, tilling and forest clearing-related emissions can be mitigated.

Can Plastic Pollution Cause Climate Change?

An interesting review titled, “The Fundamental Links Between Climate Change and Marine Plastic Pollution”, describes the interactive relationship between climate change and marine plastic pollution. The review’s authors claim that climate change and marine plastic pollution are linked in three ways: a) the production of plastic relies on fossil fuel extraction and is thus a greenhouse gas contributor b) climate and weather influence the distribution and spread of plastic pollution across environments c) marine ecosystems and species are presently vulnerable to both climate change and plastic pollution.

plastic bottle in water

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plastic Production

The rise in plastic demand is likely due to its reputation as an inexpensive and lightweight material that has a wide range of uses. Plastic is used for packaging, electronics, toys, utensils, safety gear and infrastructure. Even so, plastic drives greenhouse gas emissions throughout multiple stages of its so-called “lifecycle”, from extraction and refining to transportation, incineration and recycling.

As common plastics degrade, they continue to emit greenhouse gases like methane or ethylene, which intensify ocean warming. Bio-based plastics, plastics made from biomass, are no exception. While bio-based plastics do produce fewer greenhouse gases than conventional plastics, they still release heat trapping molecules during their lifecycles. Degrading plastic products fragment into microplastics and smaller constituents parts that can be toxic to humans and marine organisms.

How Does Plastic Move Around the World?

Climate inevitably influences the movement of plastics between environments. Plastics are circulated by the flow of water and wind. Extreme weather, like floods and windy storms, can move plastics from one system to another. Flooding riverine systems can transport plastics into the ocean; tropical storms from oceans can push plastics into onto terrestrial surfaces. Releasing plastic into the ocean or onto landfills is not the end of that plastic’s life cycle. Plastic and microplastics continue to impact the ecosystems long after they have been disposed of by humans.

How Does Plastic Affect Marine Ecosystems?

Climate change is altering the distribution of many species by subjecting them to novel thermal conditions. When marine habitats heat up, the species within them are usually forced to move to new regions to find more suitable temperatures. Heating oceans also contribute to hypoxic zone and coral bleaching. Plastic, on the other hand, can is ingested by marine species, which can low survival odds. In some cases, marine animals become entangled by plastic products or have their feeding pathways obstructed.

Plastic also potentially facilitates species migrations because plastic debris attracts encrusting organisms and microbial communities. Therefore both climate change and plastic pollution can contribute to species movement between ocean regions. Increased species mobility can bring about invasive species risks.

How Does Plastic In the Ocean Affect Climate Change?

Authors of the review, “The Fundamental Links Between Climate Change and Marine Plastic Pollution”, reason that climate change and plastic pollution are fundamentally linked to one another. Plastic production is heavily dependent on fossil fuel use and the release of greenhouse gases as it degrades in oceans, both of which enhance ocean heating and climate change. Plastic dispersal across environments influenced by climate change-driven extreme weather. Marine ecosystems and species are vulnerable to these threats.

Is Seitan Healthy For Weight Loss?

Plant-based diets are more than just a strategy for promoting sustainable agriculture, they can also improve weight loss efforts and reduce heart disease risks. Plant proteins like seitan are generally lower in fats and carbohydrates compared to animal proteins, so seitan is an ideal food while dieting for weight loss. Carbohydrates are macronutrients taken from the foods that we consume. Our bodies then convert carbohydrates into glucose which is used as energy.

woman holding tape measurer around waist

A 2014 randomized controlled trial titled “Effect of a 6-Month Vegan Low-Carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) Diet On Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Weight In Hyperlipidaemic Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial” compared the effects of low-carbohydrate vegan diets (containing protein and fat from plant-based sources) to high-carbohydrate ovo-lacto vegetarian diets (containing some animal sources of protein and fat). The study concludes that low-carbohydrate vegan diets that get protein and fat from gluten and other plant foods had weight loss advantages over a high-carbohydrate ovo-lacto vegetarian diets. Furthermore, low-carb vegan diets had greater lipid lowering benefits than high-carb diets did, making low-carb vegan diets the superior alternative for limiting heart disease risks.

“Effect of a 6-Month Vegan Low-Carbohydrate (‘Eco-Atkins’) Diet On Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Body Weight In Hyperlipidaemic Adults: A Randomised Controlled Trial” Review

The 23 participants who completed the study were overweight hyperlipidemic men and women. They were instructed to eat one of two of these meal plans over the course of six months after finishing one-month-all foods included-variations of the diets. The macronutrient intake for the low-carbohydrate meal plan had 26% of energy came from carbohydrates, 31% from protein and 43% from fat. For the high-carbohydrate meal plan, 58% of energy came from carbohydrates, 16% from protein and 25% from fat. The results of the study: weight loss for the low-carbohydrate group increased to -15.2 pounds compared to the -12.7 pounds weight loss increase for the high-carbohydrate participants. In addition, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (also known as bad cholesterol) and triglyceride reductions were more pronounced in the low-carbohydrate group.